Item: i48462 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Byzantine Empire Anonymous Class A1 Bronze Follis 22mm (3.40 grams) Struck 969-976 A.
Under John I - Byzantine Emperor: 969-976 A. Reference: Sear 1793 +MMANOVH - Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus crown (with two pellets in each limb of cross), pallium and colobium , and holding book of Gospels (the cover ornamended with central pellet in border of dots) with both hands; to left, IC; to right, XC.
+IhSS / XPISTS / bASIL / bASIL ("Jesus Christ King of Kings") in four lines. For more than a century, the production of Follis denomination Byzantine coins had religious Christian motifs which included included Jesus Christ, and even Virgin Mary. These coins were designed to honor Christ and recognize the subservient role of the Byzantine emperor, with many of the reverse inscriptions translating to "Jesus Christ King of Kings" and "May Jesus Christ Conquer".
The Follis denomination coins were the largest bronze denomination coins issued by the Byzantine empire, and their large size, along with the Christian motif make them a popular coin type for collectors. This series ran from the period of Byzantine emperors John I 969-976 A.
The accepted classification was originally devised by Miss Margaret Thompson with her study of these types of coins. World famous numismatic author, David R. Sear adopted this classification system for his book entitled, Byzantine Coins and Their Values.
The references about this coin site Mr. Sear's book by the number that they appear in that work. The class types of coins included Class A1, Class A2, Class B, Class C, Class D, Class E, Class F, Class G, Class H, Class I, Class J, Class K. Read more and see examples of these coins by reading the JESUS CHRIST Anonymous Class A-N Byzantine Follis Coins Reference.
30 AD/CE, also referred to as Jesus Christ or simply Jesus , is the central figure of Christianity. Most Christian denominations venerate him as God the Son incarnated and believe that he rose from the dead after being crucified. The principal sources of information regarding Jesus are the four canonical gospels , and most critical scholars find them, at least the Synoptic Gospels , useful for reconstructing Jesus life and teachings. Some scholars believe apocryphal texts such as the Gospel of Thomas and the Gospel according to the Hebrews are also relevant.Most critical historians agree that Jesus was a Jew who was regarded as a teacher and healer , that he was baptized by John the Baptist , and was crucified in Jerusalem on the orders of the Roman Prefect Judaea , Pontius Pilate , on the charge of sedition against the Roman Empire. Critical Biblical scholars and historians have offered competing descriptions of Jesus as a self-described Messiah , as the leader of an apocalyptic movement, as an itinerant sage, as a charismatic healer, and as the founder of an independent religious movement.
Most contemporary scholars of the Historical Jesus consider him to have been an independent, charismatic founder of a Jewish restoration movement, anticipating an imminent apocalypse. Other prominent scholars, however, contend that Jesus' " Kingdom of God " meant radical personal and social transformation instead of a future apocalypse. Christians traditionally believe that Jesus was born of a virgin. Founded the Church , rose from the dead , and ascended into heaven. From which he will return.
Most Christian scholars today present Jesus as the awaited Messiah promised in the Old Testament and as God, arguing that he fulfilled many Messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, one of three divine persons of a reject Trinitarianism Trinity , wholly or partly, believing it to be non-scriptural. John I Tzimiskes or Tzimisces Greek. Ianns I Tzimisks ; circa 925 January 10, 976 was the senior Byzantine Emperor from December 11, 969 to January 10, 976. An intuitive and successful general, he strengthened the Empire and expanded its borders during his short reign.The Bamberger Gunthertuch , a Byzantine silk tapestry depicting the return of John Tzimiskes from a successful campaign. John I Tzimiskes was born into the Kourkouas clan, a family of Armenian origin. Scholars have speculated that his nickname "Tzimiskes" was derived either from the Armenian Chmushkik , meaning "red boot", or from an Armenian word for short stature. " A more favorable explanation is offered by the medieval Armenian historian Matthew of Edessa , who states that "Tzimiskes was from the region of Khozan, from the area which is now called Chmushkatzag. Khozan was located in the region of Paghnatun, in the Byzantine province of Fourth Armenia (Sophene).
Tzimiskes was born sometime in 925 to an unnamed member of the Kourkouas family and the sister of the future Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas. Both the Kourkouai and the Phokadai were distinguished Cappadocian families, and among the most prominent of the emerging military aristocracy of Asia Minor. Several of their members had served as prominent army generals, most notably the great John Kourkouas , who conquered Melitene and much of Armenia.
Contemporary sources describe Tzimiskes as a rather short but well-built man, with reddish blonde hair and beard and blue eyes who was attractive to women. He seems to have joined the army at an early age, originally under the command of his maternal uncle Nikephoros Phokas.
The latter is also considered his instructor in the art of war. Partly because of his familial connections and partly because of his personal abilities, Tzimiskes quickly rose through the ranks. He was given the political and military command of the theme of Armenia before he turned twenty-five years old. His marriage to Maria Skleraina linked him to the influential family of the Skleroi. The coronation of John Tzimiskes, from the Madrid Skylitzes.
The Byzantine Empire was at war with its eastern neighbors, the various autonomous and semi-autonomous emirates emerging from the break-up of the Abbasid Caliphate. The most prominent among them was the Hamdanid Emirate of Aleppo , under Sayf al-Dawla. Armenia served as the borderland between the two Empires, and Tzimiskes successfully defended his province. He and his troops joined the main part of the army, which was campaigning under the command of Nikephoros Phokas.
Nikephoros (meaning "bearer of victory") justified his name with a series of victories, moving the borders further east with the capture of about 60 border cities including Aleppo. By 962 the Hamdanids had sued for peace with favorable terms for the Byzantines, securing the eastern border of the Empire for some years. Tzimiskes distinguished himself during the war both at the side of his uncle and at leading parts of the army to battle under his personal command, as in the Battle of Raban in 958.
He was rather popular with his troops and gained a reputation for taking the initiative during battles, turning their course. On the death of Emperor Romanos II in 963, Tzimiskes urged his uncle to seize the throne. After helping Nikephoros to the throne and continuing to defend the Empire's eastern provinces, Tzimiskes was deprived of his command by an intrigue, for which he retaliated by conspiring with Nikephoros' wife Theophano and a number of disgruntled leading generals (Michael Bourtzes and Leo Balantes) to assassinate Nikephoros.Meeting of Svyatoslav I with Emperor John Tzimiskes. After his coronation in December 969, Tzimiskes dispatched his brother-in-law Bardas Skleros to subdue a rebellion by Bardas Phokas , a cousin of Tzimiskes who aspired to succeed their uncle as emperor.
To solidify his position, Tzimiskes married Theodora , a daughter of Emperor Constantine VII. He proceeded to justify his usurpation by repelling the foreign invaders of the Empire. In a series of campaigns against the Kievan Rus' encroachment on the Lower Danube in 970971, he drove the enemy out of Thrace in the Battle of Arcadiopolis , crossed Mt. Haemus , and besieged the fortress of Dorostolon (Silistra) on the Danube for sixty-five days, where after several hard-fought battles he defeated Great Prince Svyatoslav I of Rus'. Tzimiskes and Svyatoslav ended up negotiating a truce, in which weaponry, armor and provisions were exchanged for the famished Rus' departure.On his return to Constantinople, Tzimiskes celebrated a triumph, built the Church of Christ of the Chalkè as thanksgiving, divested the captive Bulgarian Emperor Boris II of the Imperial symbols, and proclaimed Bulgaria annexed. He further secured his northern frontier by transplanting to Thrace some colonies of the Paulicians , whom he suspected of sympathising with their Muslim neighbours in the east. In 972 Tzimiskes turned against the Abbasid Empire and its vassals, beginning with an invasion of Upper Mesopotamia. A second campaign, in 975, was aimed at Syria , where his forces took Emesa , Baalbek , Damascus , Tiberias , Nazareth , Caesarea , Sidon , Beirut , Byblos , and Tripoli , but they failed to take Jerusalem. He died suddenly in 976 returning from his second campaign against the Abbasids and was buried in the Church of Christ Chalkites , which he had rebuilt. Several sources state that the Imperial chamberlain Basil Lekapenos poisoned the Emperor to prevent him from stripping Lekapenos of his ill-gotten lands and riches. Tzimiskes was succeeded by his ward and nephew, Basil II , who had been nominal co-emperor since 960. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic?
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Please don't leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item "JESUS CHRIST Class A1 Anonymous Ancient 969AD Byzantine Follis Coin i48462" is in sale since Friday, March 13, 2015. This item is in the category "Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Byzantine (300-1400 AD)".The seller is "highrating_lowprice" and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.