Byzantine Empire Anonymous Class I Bronze Follis 22mm (4.52 grams) Struck during the reign of Nicephorus III - 24 March 1078 - 4 April 1081 A. Reference: Sear 1889 Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus crown, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in beneditcion, in left hand, the book of Gospels, IC to left, XC to right; within border. Latin cross , with X at center, and globule and two pellets at each extremity; in lower field, on either side, floral ornament; in uppper field, on either side, crescent. For more than a century, the production of Follis denomination Byzantine coins had religious Christian motifs which included included Jesus Christ, and even Virgin Mary.
These coins were designed to honor Christ and recognize the subservient role of the Byzantine emperor, with many of the reverse inscriptions translating to "Jesus Christ King of Kings" and "May Jesus Christ Conquer". The Follis denomination coins were the largest bronze denomination coins issued by the Byzantine empire, and their large size, along with the Christian motif make them a popular coin type for collectors. This series ran from the period of Byzantine emperors John I 969-976 A.The accepted classification was originally devised by Miss Margaret Thompson with her study of these types of coins. World famous numismatic author, David R.
Sear adopted this classification system for his book entitled, Byzantine Coins and Their Values. The references about this coin site Mr.Sear's book by the number that they appear in that work. The class types of coins included Class A1, Class A2, Class B, Class C, Class D, Class E, Class F, Class G, Class H, Class I, Class J, Class K. Read more and see examples of these coins by reading the JESUS CHRIST Anonymous Class A-N Byzantine Follis Coins Reference. 30 AD/CE, also referred to as Jesus Christ or simply Jesus , is the central figure of Christianity. Most Christian denominations venerate him as God the Son incarnated and believe that he rose from the dead after being crucified. The principal sources of information regarding Jesus are the four canonical gospels , and most critical scholars find them, at least the Synoptic Gospels , useful for reconstructing Jesus life and teachings. Some scholars believe apocryphal texts such as the Gospel of Thomas and the Gospel according to the Hebrews are also relevant. Most critical historians agree that Jesus was a Jew who was regarded as a teacher and healer , that he was baptized by John the Baptist , and was crucified in Jerusalem on the orders of the Roman Prefect Judaea , Pontius Pilate , on the charge of sedition against the Roman Empire. Critical Biblical scholars and historians have offered competing descriptions of Jesus as a self-described Messiah , as the leader of an apocalyptic movement, as an itinerant sage, as a charismatic healer, and as the founder of an independent religious movement. Most contemporary scholars of the Historical Jesus consider him to have been an independent, charismatic founder of a Jewish restoration movement, anticipating an imminent apocalypse. Other prominent scholars, however, contend that Jesus' " Kingdom of God " meant radical personal and social transformation instead of a future apocalypse. Christians traditionally believe that Jesus was born of a virgin. Founded the Church , rose from the dead , and ascended into heaven. From which he will return. Most Christian scholars today present Jesus as the awaited Messiah promised in the Old Testament and as God, arguing that he fulfilled many Messianic prophecies of the Old Testament.
The majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, one of three divine persons of a reject Trinitarianism Trinity , wholly or partly, believing it to be non-scriptural. Nikephoros III Botaneiates , Latinized as Nicephorus III Botaniates Greek.1002 10 December 1081 was Byzantine emperor from 1078 to 1081. He belonged to a family which claimed descent from the Byzantine Phokas family. Nikephoros Botaneiates had served as general from the reign of Constantine IX. Drawn to politics, he had been an active participant in the uprising that brought Isaac I to the throne in 1057, including a prominent role in the Battle of Petroe. Although considered a competent general, he had suffered a number of humiliating setbacks throughout his career.
In 1064, he, together with Basil Apokapes , doux of Paradounavon , defended the Balkan frontiers against the invading Oghuz Turks , but was defeated and suffered the humiliation of being taken captive. However, the outbreak of an epidemic soon began decimating the Turks and the prisoners were recovered, while the survivors were quickly recruited in the Byzantine army. In 1067, he had been considered as a possible husband for the empress Eudokia Makrembolitissa , widowed wife of Constantine X, but she eventually set her heart on Romanos IV Diogenes. Excluded from Romanos's campaign at Manzikert , he retired to his estates in Anatolia. Eventually, under Michael VII Doukas , he became strategos of the Anatolic theme and commander of the troops in Asia Minor.
Here he participated in the shambolic acts that crippled the empires eastern provinces, including his strategic retreat when Caesar John Doukas was confronting Norman mercenary rebels, resulting in the humiliating defeat of the Byzantine army, and the capture of John Doukas. In 1078 he revolted against Michael VII and his finance minister Nikephoritzes , and with the support of the Seljuk Turks who provided him with valuable troops he marched upon Nicaea , where he proclaimed himself emperor. In the face of another rebellious general, Nikephoros Bryennios , his election was ratified by the aristocracy and clergy, while Michael VII abdicated and became a monk. On 24 March 1078, Nikephoros III Botaneiates entered Constantinople in triumph and was crowned by Patriarch Kosmas I of Constantinople.
With the help of his general Alexios Komnenos , he defeated Bryennios and other rivals, but failed to clear the invading Turks out of Asia Minor. To solidify his position, on the death of his second wife Nikephoros III sought to marry Eudokia Makrembolitissa , the mother of Michael VII and the widow of Constantine X and Romanos IV. This plan was undermined by the Caesar John Doukas , and Nikephoros instead married Maria of Alania.
They married in contravention of church canons, as Maria was still at that time, the wife of Michael VII who had entered the monastery of Stoudios. Nevertheless, Nikephoros did not recognize the succession rights of Maria's son Constantine Doukas , while his plan to promote his worthless nephew Synadenos as co-emperor exposed him to the suspicion and plots of the surviving portions of the Doukas faction at court. Nikephoros' administration did not win him much support, as his favored courtiers alienated much of the older court bureaucracy and failed to stop the devaluation of the Byzantine currency. Almost immediately, the uprisings began. Apart from the discontent of the Byzantine aristocracy, several Armenian princes in Asia Minor attempted to establish their independence from the empire.Two Paulician leaders launched their own rebellion in Thrace , in a brutal religious conflict that was not easily suppressed. Consequently, Nikephoros became increasingly dependent on the support of Alexios Komnenos, who successfully defeated the rebellion of Nikephoros Basilakes in the Balkans (1079) and was charged with containing that of Nikephoros Melissenos in Anatolia (1080). The Byzantine Empire also faced foreign invasion, as the Norman Duke Robert Guiscard of Apulia declared war under the pretext of defending the rights of young Constantine Doukas, who had been engaged to Robert's daughter Helena. As Alexios was entrusted with substantial armed forces to combat the impending Norman invasion, the Doukas faction, led by the Caesar John, conspired to overthrow Nikephoros and replace him with Alexios. Failing to secure the support of either the Seljuk Turks or Nikephoros Melissenos (both parties being his traditional enemies), Nikephoros III was forced to abdicate in favour of the Komnenos dynasty, to which he was connected through the engagement of his grandson to the daughter of Alexios's older brother Manuel.
The deposed emperor retired into the monastery that he had endowed and died later the same year. Nicephorus III is also a fictional Byzantine Emperor ruling in the beginning of the 14th century in Harry Turtledove's alternate history novel Agent of Byzantium. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing.Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don't leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me.
My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item "JESUS CHRIST Class I Anonymous Ancient 1078AD Byzantine Follis Coin CROSS i55442" is in sale since Wednesday, May 11, 2016. This item is in the category "Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Byzantine (300-1400 AD)".
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