Item: i66911 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Emperor: 15 November 1028 11 April 1034 A. Reference: Sear 1819; DOC 1 Certification: ICG.
AU58 5086780109 +IhS XIS RX RGNANTINM, Christ enthroned facing, wearing nimbus crown, pallium and colobium, raising right hand in benediction and holding book of Gospels in left. C bOH RWMANW, the Virgin, nimbate on right, and Romanus, bearded to left, both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and maphorium, and with her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears saccos and loros, and holds globus cruciger in left hand; M between their heads. Jesus (7-2 BC to AD 30-33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity, whom the teachings of most Christian denominations hold to be the Son of God.
Christians believe Jesus is the awaited Messiah (or Christ, the Anointed One) of the Old Testament. Virtually all modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed historically, and historians consider the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke) to be the best sources for investigating the historical Jesus. Most scholars agree that Jesus was a Galilean, Jewish rabbi who preached his message orally, was baptized by John the Baptist, and was crucified by the order of the Roman Prefect Pontius Pilate. In the current mainstream view, Jesus was an apocalyptic preacher and the founder of a renewal movement within Judaism, although some prominent scholars argue that he was not apocalyptic. After Jesus' death, his followers believed he was resurrected, and the community they formed eventually became the Christian church.
The widely used calendar era, abbreviated as "AD" from the Latin "Anno Domini" ("in the year of our Lord") or sometimes as "CE", is based on the birth of Jesus. Christians believe that Jesus has a "unique significance" in the world. Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement, rose from the dead, and ascended into Heaven, whence he will return.
Most Christians believe Jesus enables humans to be reconciled to God, and will judge the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection, an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology; though some believe Jesus's role as savior has more existential or societal concerns than the afterlife, and a few notable theologians have suggested that Jesus will bring about a universal reconciliation. The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of a Divine Trinity.
A few Christian groups reject Trinitarianism, wholly or partly, as non-scriptural. In Islam, Jesus (commonly transliterated as Isa) is considered one of God's important prophets and the Messiah, second in importance only to Muhammad. To Muslims, Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was not the Son of God.According to the Quran, Jesus was not crucified but was physically raised into Heaven by God. Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill the Messianic prophecies in the Tanakh. Mary (Hebrew: , Miriam ; Aramaic: Marym ; Arabic: , Maryam), variously called Saint Mary , Mother Mary , the Virgin Mary , the Theotokos , the Blessed Virgin Mary , Mary, Mother of God , and, in Islam, as Maryam, mother of Isa' , was an Israelite Jewish woman of Nazareth in Galilee who lived in the late 1st century BC and early 1st century AD, and is considered by Christians to be the first proselyte to Christianity. She is identified in the New Testament. [Mt 1:16,18-25][Lk 1:26-56][2:1-7]. And in the Qur'an as the mother of Jesus through divine intervention. Christians hold her son Jesus to be Christ i.
The messiah and God the Son Incarnate (see Trinitarian monotheism), whereas Muslims regard Jesus as the messiah and the most important prophet of God sent to the people of Israel (and the second-most-important prophet of all, lesser than Muhammad alone). The canonical gospels of Matthew and Luke describe Mary as a virgin (Greek , parthénos). Traditionally, Christians believe that she conceived her son miraculously by the agency of the Holy Spirit.
Muslims believe that she conceived by the command of God. This took place when she was already betrothed to Saint Joseph and was awaiting the concluding rite of marriage, the formal home-taking ceremony. She married Joseph and accompanied him to Bethlehem, where Jesus was born. In keeping with Jewish custom, the betrothal would have taken place when she was around 12, and the birth of Jesus about a year later. The New Testament begins its account of Mary's life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to her and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus.Church tradition and early non-biblical writings state that her parents were an elderly couple, Saint Joachim and Saint Anne. The Bible records Mary's role in key events of the life of Jesus from his conception to his Ascension. Apocryphal writings tell of her subsequent death and bodily assumption into heaven. Christians of the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church, Anglican Communion, and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God and the Theotokos, literally Bearer of God. Mary has been venerated since Early Christianity.
Throughout the ages she has been a favorite subject in Christian art, music, and literature. There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Catholic Church has a number of Marian dogmas, such as the Immaculate Conception of Mary the Perpetual Virginity of Mary, and the Assumption of Mary into Heaven.
Catholics refer to her as Our Lady and venerate her as the Queen of Heaven and Mother of the Church; most Protestants do not share these beliefs. Many Protestants see a minimal role for Mary within Christianity, based on the brevity of biblical references.
Romanos III Argyros , or Romanus III Argyrus (Greek: , Rmanos III Argyros ; 968 - 11 April 1034), was Byzantine emperor from 15 November 1028 until his death. Romanos Argyros was the son of an unnamed member of the Argyros family, who may be identifiable with the Pothos Argyros who defeated a Magyar raid in 958 (identified by some scholars with an older namesake) or with Eustathios Argyros, known only for commissioning a poem in honour of Romanos II in 950. Romanos' father was the son of another Romanos Argyros, who had married Agatha, a daughter of Romanos I Lekapenos r.
Romanos had several siblings: Basil Argyros, who served as general and governor under Basil II r. Romanos was born in 968. Romanos served as krites (judge) in Opsikion, with the rank of protospatharios. In this capacity he persecuted heretics at Akmoneia. He was then promoted to the post of quaestor , and became one of the judges of the Hippodrome.In this role he is mentioned in the Peira , a compendium of legal decisions compiled by the notable jurist Eustathios Rhomaios. He was promoted further to the rank of patrikios and the post of oikonomos (steward) of the Great Church, while continuing to preside over a tribunal. At the time of the death of Basil II's successor, Emperor Constantine VIII, in 1028, he held the post of urban prefect of Constantinople.
Romanos attracted the attention of Constantine VIII, who forced him to divorce his wife (sending her into a monastery) and to marry the emperor's daughter Zoe Porphyrogenita. The marriage took place on 12 November 1028, and three days later Constantine VIII died, leaving Romanos III as emperor. The new emperor showed great eagerness to make his mark as a ruler, but was mostly unfortunate in his enterprises.
He spent large sums upon new buildings and in endowing the monks. His endeavour to relieve the pressure of taxation disorganized the finances of the state. Idealizing Marcus Aurelius, Romanos aspired to be a new "philosopher king", and similarly desired to imitate the military prowess of Trajan.
Romanus Argyrus coat of arms. In 1030 he resolved to lead a large army in person against the Mirdasids of Aleppo.
But by encamping his army in a waterless site and allowing his scouting party to be ambushed, he sustained a serious defeat at Azaz, near Antioch. Despite Romanos' tragic defeat, the Emir of Aleppo opened negotiations and signed a treaty which made Aleppo an Imperial tributary and allowed for a Greek governor to preside over the city. In 1032, the capture and successful defence of Edessa by George Maniakes and the sound defeat of a Saracen fleet in the Adriatic did little to improve Romanos' early popularity.
The murder of Romanos III Argyros in a bath, from the Chronicle of John Skylitzes. In a vain attempt to reduce expenditure, Romanos limited his wife's expenses, which merely exacerbated the alienation between the two.
At home Romanos III faced several conspiracies, mostly centered on his sister-in-law Theodora, as in 1029 and 1030. Although he survived these attempts on the throne, his death on 11 April 1034 was supposed to have been due to poison administered by his wife, though there is also speculation that he was drowned in a bath on his wife's orders. He was buried in the Church of St. Mary Peribleptos, which he built.
By his first wife Helena, Romanos III Argyros had a daughter, who was engaged to Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. He had no children by his second wife Zoe. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent.
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